Dose of Jogging and Long-Term Mortality
What is the optimal dose of aerobic exercise for longevity
light joggers and moderate joggers have lower mortality rates than sedentary nonjoggers, whereas strenuous joggers have a mortality rate that is not statistically different from that of the sedentary group
What about other types of exercise? Might be interesting to see if similar calory expenditure in different types of exercise gives the same results, or if there is anything special about running.
Might diet be related to the dropoff for people who run >4 times a week (ie, they eat many more carbs and this has the negative effect?)
Insights, lessons learnt:
The suggestions follow my plan quite closely: run 3 times a week, 2*1h at average pace and 30mins of speedwork. To be honest, this may still be too high to be beneficial, but is close enough to the “moderate” level of exercise that it should still be better than no exercise by quite a lot.
Note: hazard ratio of 2.0 means that people die at twice the rate of the control. 0.5 = half the rate
As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy nonjoggers have been prospectively followed up since 2001.
Incredibly strong effect! 6.2 years! At the optimal level of exercise this could presumably be extended further.
Subsequently, the Copenhagen City Heart Study showed that the increase in survival among joggers was 6.2 years in men and 5.6 years in women. This particular analysis was performed in a random sample of 1,878 joggers who were followed for up to 35 years and compared with 16,827 nonjoggers. Jogging up to 2.5 h per week at a slow or average pace and a frequency of #3 times per week was associated with the lowest mortality. Those who jogged>4 h per week, at a fast pace, and>3 times per week appeared to lose many of the longevity benefits noted with less strenuous doses of jogging
In the present analyses, we excluded participants with a history of CHD (n = 513), stroke (n = 262), and cancer (n = 469)
In the multivariable analyses, we adjusted for the following potential confounders: age, sex, smoking (never, former, 1 to 14 g/day of tobacco, $15 g/day of tobacco; 1 cigarette 录 1 g of tobacco, 1 cheroot 录 3 g of tobacco, and 1 cigar 录 5 g of tobacco), alcohol intake (never, 1 to 21 drinks/week for men and 1 to 14 drinks/week for women,>21 drinks/week for men and>14 drinks/week for women), education (10 years in school), and DM (self-reported or
in the graph, looking at quantity, frequency and pace, we have clear wins )p < 0.001! for
- 1-2.4h a week
- 2-3 times a week
- average pace
The joggers were divided into 3 groups (light, moderate, and strenuous joggers), which were then compared with the sedentary nonjoggers group. The Central Illustration shows that light joggers had the most favorable fully adjusted HR for all-cause mortality (0.22; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.47); the HR for moderate joggers was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.32 to 1.38) and for strenuous joggers was 1.97 (95% CI: 0.48 to 8.14). Compared with light joggers, the moderate and strenuous joggers had significantly higher adjusted HRs (3.06 [95% CI: 1.11 to 8.45] and 9.08 [95% CI: 1.87 to 44.01], respectively). These findings suggest that there is a U-shaped association between jogging and mortality.
approximately 1,960,000 people completed a half-marathon in 2013 (38). The incidence of sudden cardiac death in these endurance races was very low in absolute numbers, although the rate was significantly higher (almost 4-fold) in marathons (1.01 per 100,000; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.38) than in half-marathons (0.27; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.43)